Part L1A of the Building Regulations comes into force in October 2010. This article from Dyfrig Hughes, Technical Manager for National Energy Services, summarises the ten key changes and presents ways of exploring these changes in more depth.
When you’ve read this article, you might be interested in reading about the 10 ways SAP 2009 will affect you. You can also see more about our package of online CPD to dig even deeper into the subject.
1: 25% less CO2 emissions than in 2006
Part L1A 2010 aims to reduce CO2 emissions by 25% over Part L1A 2006. This is a 40% improvement over a dwelling built to the 2002 regulations. This corresponds roughly with the trigger point for Code for Sustainable Homes Level 3, in line with the government’s strategy for getting newbuild dwellings to zero carbon by 2016.
2: The ‘Flat’ TER wins the day
The Target Emission Rate (TER) is calculated in much the same way as it was in Part L1A 2006. The main differences are that (a) an improvement factor of 0.4 is used rather than 0.2 to give the 40% improvement referred to above (b) the SAP 2009 methodology is used to estimate the carbon emissions from heating, hot water, lighting, pumps and fans.
The fuel factors have not changed so that electric heat pumps and biomass will continue to be encouraged by the TER; although this is countered to an extent by lower limiting U values (see key point 8). The fuel factor for heat pumps is also to be reviewed after the renewable heat incentive is introduced. The ‘Aggregate’ TER was rejected on the grounds that the benefits did not justify a change in methodology at this stage, despite the Aggregate option being selected for non domestic dwellings. The issue will be re-examined for Part L1A 2013.
You can explore how to meet the new TER in practice using the updated NHER SAP 2009 Preview software.
3: Cavity Party Walls – insulating/sealing them does not count towards the 25%
A key feature of SAP 2009 is that party walls with unfilled and unsealed cavities are assumed to have a U value of 0.5 W/m2K. The notional dwelling used in calculating the TER assumes a U value for cavity party walls of 0.0 W/m2K. This compares to 0.4 W/m2K in last year’s Part L1A 2010 consultation. This means that insulating/sealing cavity party walls will not count towards the 25% improvement target.
4: Thermal Bridges – 0.08 for ACDs no longer an option
In Part L1A 2006, it is acceptable to assume a y value of 0.08 W/m2K if Accredited Construction Details have been used. This will not be possible with Part L1A 2010. Instead, the length of each junction will need to be measured, multiplied by the appropriate psi values and added up to produce an ‘effective’ y value.
The psi values can either be values already supplied in the SAP 2009 document or supplied by the relevant approved government ACD scheme. The psi values can also be calculated for specific junctions. A confidence factor will be applied to the psi value calculation for an individual junction if either (a) the calculated psi values are not from a government approved Accredited Details scheme or (b) if no on site checks can be demonstrated to have been made. The confidence factor applied to the psi value calculation is 25% or 0.02, whichever is the larger.
5: Air Permeability – more pressure testing and a confidence factor for untested dwellings
The volume of pressure testing required will roughly double. A pressure test should be carried out on three units of each dwelling type or 50% of the instances of the dwelling type, whichever is the smaller.
In addition, a confidence factor will apply to dwellings not pressure tested. Where a dwelling has been pressure tested, the measured value is used in the calculation of the DER. Where the dwelling has not been pressure tested, the value used in the DER calculation is the average of the measured values for dwellings of the same type but with the addition of a confidence factor of 2.0 m3/(h.m2) at 50 pa. This means in effect that the design air permeability must be at most 8.0 in order to meet the maximum allowable value of 10.0 at completion of the dwelling. A value of 15.0 can still be used in small developments.
6 Low Energy Lighting – 100% counts towards meeting the TER
A minimum of 75% of light fittings must be low energy. If further low energy light fittings are also low energy, the full 100% will contribute towards meeting the TER target.
7 Electric Secondary Heating – no longer assumed
In Part L 2006, a penalty was applied in dwellings not fitted with a secondary heating appliance. In such cases it was assumed that 10% of the heat in the property came from direct acting electric heaters, thereby significantly increasing the DER. In Part L 2010, there is no such penalty unless the dwelling has a chimney or flue and no appliance is installed; in such cases the calculation is the same as in 2006.
8: New Limiting U values – including for party walls
9: ‘Design’ Submissions now part of Regulation – alongside ‘As Built’ Submissions
In Part L1A 2006, it was recommended that a submission be provided to Building Control prior to the building work being completed on site; but this not an absolute requirement.
However, in Part L1A 2010 the person carrying out the work must provide building control the TER, DER and a list of specifications before work starts on site. Then, no later than 5 days after the work has been completed, they must notify Building Control of the TER and DER actually achieved, and whether the building has been constructed as per the design specification; if not, a list of changes to the design specification must be supplied. This is to better enable Building Control to confirm that what has been built aligns with the claimed performance. New outputs from SAP software will be available to help Building Control with this process.
10: Addressing the Performance Gap
There is growing evidence that completed dwellings do not in practice achieve the intended energy performance. This is referred to by government as the ‘performance gap’. If we are to achieve true zero carbon by 2016 it is vital that this gap be closed. Part L1A 2010 contains various things that aim to contribute to this.
Firstly, the document is clearer than previous versions in distinguishing between ‘Regulation’ and ‘Guidance’ and is less ambiguous in many places. This should help developers better understand what is required of them and give Building Control clearer guidance on how to check for compliance.
Secondly, the requirement to produce a Design submission as well as an As Built Submission, including a comparison of specifications, will hopefully bring more standardisation and rigour to the compliance checks.
Thirdly, the notion of ‘confidence factors’ should start to reward those developers who adopt good quality control procedures both in design and on site. We can expect to see more of these confidence factors in 2013 and beyond.
- Approved Document ADL1A 2010
- National Energy Services are running a series of interactive seminars on Part L 2010/SAP 2009, with the Zero Carbon Hub, from May to September 2010
- A summary of the changes to SAP 2009
- Educational SAP 2009/Part L 2010 software from National Energy Service
- Our package of online CPD, covering the changes to Part L and SAP